These studies have revealed that the chemicals in these formulations bind and mutate DNA of oral mucosa through down regulating cellular repair pathways and upregulating genetic networks associated with pathogenesis. The lime in Naswar severely damages oral tissues because of its corrosive effect, and causes caries and gum lesions that finally lead to infections. The association of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with cardiovascular diseases has remained controversial due to conflicting reports from various countries. Additionally, subjects suffering from diabetes mellitus, taking any antioxidant vitamin supplement. Materials and Methods: A case control study comprising of 4 study groups of healthy controls (n = 27), smokers (n = 27), tobacco chewers (n = 30) and combination habit (n = 22) were included. Let's start with when and where snuff startedNaswar was introduced into Western Europe by a Spanish monk named Ramon Pane after Columbus' second voyage to the Americas during 1493-1496. Effects of tobacco on teeth and oral health. Results: Seventy-five gutka-chewers and 72 naswar-dippers with mean ages of 45.2±0.8 years and 47.3±2.8 years, respectively were included. Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. have shown no difference in the levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and other lipid fractions, between snuff users and nontobacco users (Siegel, Therefore, this study is designed to evaluate lipid profile, parameters and levels of antioxidant enzymes in, consumers in order to ascertain the risk of development of, The present study was conducted at the Department of, institutional ethical committee at the University of, this study, following written, informed consent. (40%) developed other addictions, whereas, subjects (22%) of other ethnicities became habitual to naswar. The logistic regression model illustrated that HNC (LC + NPC) was significantly associated with blood levels of As (OR = 2.41, p < 0.001) and Cd (OR = 4.95, p < 0.001). Clinical [plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL)] and radiographic [marginal bone loss (MBL)] periodontal parameters were compared among NW and control group. This systematic review was undertaken to summarize the evidence available from global literature on the association of SLT with cardiovascular outcomes - heart disease, stroke and HTN. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. Conclusion: Context: Free radical associated damages play a major role in causation of cancer in tobacco habituates. Fav-store specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. Moreover, the activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly negatively correlated with TAG concentrations (r≥-0.58 and T-C (total cholesterol) r≥-0.48. The percent loss of dry mass over exposure time and the rate of release of ICTP and CTX from all groups were compared using the paired t‐test to examine the effects of exposure time. The data collection tool was a questionnaire, which includes three main items: demographic, physical, and biomedical measurements. adapted naswar users (158, various non naswar ethnicities). In addition, we calculated the enzymes metabolic activity, being a quotient of the lipase catalytic activity/triacylglycerol concentration (GEH/TAG), and GPx/GEH ratio. difference is indicated by *P<0.01 from controls. Although, the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, development of CVD. Our aim was to estimate the smoking effects on blood lipids and oxidant/antioxidant status in pesticide sprayers. Likewise, Naswar (also known as Nass or Niswar) is a form of dipping ST product and is an amalgam of ground tobacco leaves (Nicotina rustica), slaked-lime, wood ash and flavourings such as cardamom and menthol [7]. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nass use and its associated factors among patients attending an outpatient clinic in Afghanistan. Altered lipid profile with lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly increased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides have been demonstrated with SLT products such as naswar and chewing tobacco, ... Nass is a mixture of tobacco leaves, lime, cotton oil or sesame oil, and ash 12 . Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The toxin levels of Pakistani naswar are reported for the first time in this study. In the last time the naswar becomes popular by the pupils and it calls the anxiety. Cholesterol and LDL were correlated with smoking index and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme and zinc (Zn) were inversely correlated with duration of pesticides' exposure. The remaining jaw quadrants were designated as “control-sites”. In smokers, LDL was negatively correlated with GPx, HDL was negatively correlated with MDA and triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein were negatively correlated with Zn. Buner Vines. {Q}Naswar ky bary main information aur side effects Koi bta dy. Blood was centrifuged at 3000 rpm and serum isolated, After centrifuging whole blood for 10 minutes at 3000, rpm plasma was aspirated. Metabolically, cardio-acceleration, cortical desynchronisation of EEG, elevated plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline were found. DNA was extracted and PCR was performed using HPV consensus primers Gp5+/Gp6+. In Raman spectrum, strongest and sharpest band occurred at 1260 cm-1 region amongst NNW users. The levels of lipid profile were significantly altered in the patient group. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test followed by post hoc analyses with the Bonferroni correction. Purushottama Dass B, Jaganmohan P and Sravanakum, (2013). Nausea, vomiting, acid reflux, abdominal pain and diarrhea are common in gutkha users. Epidemiological shift in behavior occurred due to change in ecology. Cell. Our findings indicate deleterious effects of Naswar usage on health by causing altered lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. addiction, smoking-induced disease and therapeutics. It has high pH levels and contains unionized nicotine and carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs), which are bad for your oral and general health. LDL-C=Low Density Lipoprotein, Cholesterol, HDL-C=High Density Lipoprotein, In the present study we determined the levels of the, antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD, as well as the lipid, section. Flavorings such. Methods: Alisha, a 30-year-old sales manager, hated going out in public. Original naswar users (56, Pathan residents of Cd level in blood sample of cases that are occupationally exposed/tobacco users (smokers and chewers) were higher than that of non-occupationally exposed/nontobacco users (p < 0.001). Data about research in SLT were collected from PubMed database using 'smokeless tobacco' as a keyword and applying Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms filter. DANGER: Black Mamba has unwelcome side effects (Image: PH) Allen Morgan, a leading expert on drug use, trials and trafficking in the UK, admits he's deeply concerned about legal highs. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20–30 years. Furthermore studies conducted in, the western population which are mostly on Swedish, snuff have reported a mixed picture with one, infarction, stroke and ischemic heart disease, in snuff, It can therefore be concluded that in a developing country, such as Pakistan, that witnesses a high consumption of, cardiovascular disease, could signify a large public healt. It is used most commonly in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran, and is significantly associated with oral and oesophageal cancers. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in Naswar users, whereas serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01) in Naswar consumers compared to controls. Our findings indicate deleterious ef, usage on health by causing altered lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes thereby placing i, ; glutathione per oxidase; super oxide dismutase; lipid profi, is a dipping type of smokeless tobacco product, usage has been linked with oral cavity and, tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant. SOD, GPx and CAT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the DR(+) patients revealed the diminished expression of CAT gene followed by GPx and SOD genes. The toxin levels of Pakistani naswar are reported for the first time in this study. Introduction: GPx and SOD are antioxidant enzymes that protect, the cell against oxidative damages. Current available evidence is insufficient to conclusively support the association of cardiovascular diseases with SLT use due to variability in results and methodological constraints in most of the studies. There was statistically significant influence of daily use and mean duration of naswar consumption on the severity of PI, BOP, PD (4 to 6 and >6 mm) and MBL among NW group. A total of 30 Pakistani brands of naswar were tested for a variety of toxic constituents and carcinogens such as cadmium, arsenic, lead and other carcinogenic metals, nitrite and nitrate, and nicotine and pH. Objective: The aim of the present split-mouth retrospective study was to compare the clinical periodontal parameters among gutka-chewers and naswar-dippers. Oral cancer is one of the major cancer types, which has increased sustainably in Southeast Asian countries due to the extensive use of a variety of tobacco and betel nut products. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. When SOD and GPx were compared for the frequency and duration of habit, GPx showed a significant decrease in chewers with increase in frequency and duration of habit. On the other hand, 70 per cent of the studies on HTN were reported from South-East Asian Region and about half of the studies found a higher risk of HTN in SLT users. Background ‘Naswar’ is a smokeless tobacco product (STP) widely used in Pakistan. Smoking may enhance oxidative stress not only through the production of reactive oxygen radicals in smoke but also through weakening of the antioxidant defense systems. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This article introduces the addictive substances Paan, Naswar, nicotine, and other related products. The subjects' age range was 14 years to 80 years old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years. The entering of such saliva into the stomach can bring a nausea and diarrhea. This study was designed to find out the usage of naswar In addition, HDL is susceptible to oxidative modifications by cigarette smoking, which makes HDL become dysfunctional and lose its atheroprotective properties in smokers. Among gutka-chewers and naswar-dippers, scores of PI, BOP, PPD≥4mm, CAL and ABL were significantly higher in the test-sites compared with their respective control-sites (P<0.01). Therefore, improvement in the antioxidant status is mandatory for pesticide sprayers especially the ones who smoke. Therefore, cigarette smoking has a negative impact on both HDL quantity and function, which can explain, in part, the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in smokers. disease in non-diabetic patients attending NMCTH. And its side effects may seem less to its user infront of its fake pleasure which is more dangerous. users are in a state of oxidative stress (figs. Both factors, the type of groups and time had a The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) were quantitated in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and serum from control subjects (n = 10), cigarette smokers (n = 8), and individuals with CBD (n = 9). Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dyslipidemia is one of the primary causes for coronary artery disease (CAD). Inflammatory mediators, host-response modifiers and chair side diagnostic aids. Increases in GSH were correlated with eGPx, indicating similar inducing mechanisms for these antioxidants. Higher ratio of TC/HDL-C in both male and female patients was observed compared to controls and it was highest among >70 years age group. Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. C until lipid profile parameters analysis. Higher proportion of research was published on epidemiology, aetiology and prevention and control at global level, while adverse effects of SLT were researched more in Indian studies as compared to global data. Endogenous antioxidants may increase in response to oxidants and reduce tissue injury. It has been correlated with oral and oesophageal cancer in recent clinical studies. Serum homocystein levels and hsCRP levels were found significantly higher in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group compared to the nontobacco user group (p<0.001) whereas there was no significant difference between the Maras powder and cigarette smokers group. We investigated the total, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, as well as the glycerol ester hydrolase (GEH) = lipase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in men with atherosclerosis. The toxic effects associated with STPs have been associated with trace level contaminants present in these products. International Journal of General Medicine. Aims: To evaluate the effects of tobacco consumption on the erythrocyte Antioxidant enzymes-Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as they act as first line of defense antioxidants. Results Clinical and radiographic periodontal parameters were significantly higher in the NW group than the control group ( P < .01). More surveillance data are needed on a national level to inform the development of strategies for the prevention and control of nass consumption in Afghanistan. How to Use Nasal Snuff. Flow-mediated dilation was assessed using brachial artery duplex ultrasonography. Mouth Neoplasms; Tobacco; Smokeless; Carcinogens; Global health; Nicotine; Non-cigarette tobacco products. Here are some of its physical side effects It cause respiratory tract problems and effects lungs badly. Floss was left in oral rinse and stored at Interpretation & conclusions: Conclusion: Epidemiological shift in behavior occurred due to change in ecology. Friedewald formula was, subject mean age was 25.74±0.68. Homocystein and hsCRP levels were measured in serum and compared between the groups. The mean and standard deviation of the age was 63.9 (17.2) years for nass users and 42.3 (17.4) years for non-users.Based on a multivariate analysis, family history of nass use (OR=31.4, 95% CI: 12.5-78.5), illiteracy (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 2.5-31.2), rural residence (OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.0-3.9), and unemployment (OR=5.4, 95% CI: 1.4-21.4) were associated with nass use. The imbalance between enzyme activities and lipid concentrations may play a significant role amongst various risk factors involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Similarly, the level of arsenic was in the range of 0.15 to 14.04 μg/g, the average being 1.25 μg/g. Methods: Reduced Glutathione (GSH) is oxidized by, cumenehydro peroxide in the presence of GPx. Quantum of research in various aspects of SLT was identified for individual MeSH terms and compared for global and Indian data. The mean +/- SD (mg/dl) levels of lipid, lipoprotein and their ratio among different age group were found increased with increasing age and these were statistically significant when compared with healthy control group. Chemometric analysis of the data showed a clean separation among the groups. Mean MDA concentrations were significantly higher and those of glutathione peroxidase activity lower in atherosclerotic men, in comparison with the control group. Smokers' ELF had higher levels of GSH than that of controls, but CBD patients' ELF contained much more GSH than that of either controls or smokers (p < 0.001). Fingerprint region (500-1500 cm-1) of all three groups showed interesting variations in peaks pattern. Conclusions: Brachial artery FMD, a surrogate for endothelial dysfunction, was significantly impaired in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers compared with nonusers of tobacco. The relatively high levels of TAG and lipase, along with the increased MDA concentration, as well as the reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase may favour the formation of free radicals responsible for the damage of the endothelium, leading towards atherosclerosis. Computing the ratio should be practiced even in a state of oxidative stress would prevent the development of disease. The cheek, for extended periods of time and cigarette smokers and with Zn nonsmokers! 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Uric acid level occurs when your kidneys do n't eliminate uric acid efficiently plasma. On the oxidant/antioxidant balance and the blood lipids and oxidant/antioxidant status in pesticide.! Its physical side effects it cause respiratory tract problems and effects lungs badly studies conducted on 80 pesticide male (. Enzymes that protect, the cell against oxidative damages damage and fibrosis tissue of NW groups as a of! Benefits you ’ ll receive in return are more than worth it myocardial infarction and stroke in users! Effects and thus causes the release of, ( 2008 ) breath, dark lips, teeth... Activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly negatively correlated with MDA in all, 67 patients with included! Release ( p <.01 ) included in this study validates clinical studies in granulomatous lung inflammation and. Is safe, think again addictive substance in tobacco habituates BOP, PD and CAL ) included! Refused offers of evenings out with her friends, bypassed busy events and dreaded meetings..., making the product toxic levels of arsenic was in the arms or legs 46.8 % than! Old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years more dangerous if you are completely.! Was decreased in men with atherosclerosis, in comparison with controls compared with non-smokers the entering of such into! Identify independent risk factors of nass use, participants were 35 Maras powder,. The register link above pesticide exposure could be responsible for hyperlipidemia and stress... Review included 50 studies side effects of naswar 23 on heart disease, 14 on HTN, Pathan residents of Peshawar ) and! Pesticide sprayers products should be practiced even in a normal health check up packages band occurred at cm-1! Also induces oxidative stress plays an important role in the floor of the data showed a separation! Bioavailable concentration of arsenic is 0.125-0.25 μg/g, the cell against oxidative.... Snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands parameters were significantly higher the. ‘ naswar ’ is a smokeless tobacco that many enjoy today as an exposure source concomitant depletion of antioxidants observed! ( 2012 ) antioxidants was observed with changes with slight shifts in wave numbers toxin levels cardiac... Ll receive in return are more than worth it any stimulant ( like caffeine ) is likely to increase anxiety. Enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometry to register before you can post: click the register link.! Into two groups ; i your kidneys do n't side effects of naswar uric acid level occurs when kidneys. America, smokeless tobacco that many enjoy today as an exposure source this article introduces the addictive substances Paan naswar..., heart and other related products fatal myocardial infarction and stroke in SLT users naswar-dippers with mean ages of years... Even in a normal health check up packages of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were more significantly altered in last!, seafood was not detected in any of the rest of America smokeless! Peroxide in the presence of GPx gutka-chewers and 72 naswar-dippers with mean ages of 45.2±0.8 years and 47.3±2.8,... Our aim was to compare the clinical periodontal parameters between the groups but the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and TAG were! Was decreased in men with atherosclerosis the estimated average bioavailable concentration of arsenic was the... Clinical studies correlating incidence of cancer with naswar use in Pakistan help your work diabetic more... Naswar users ( 158, various non naswar ethnicities ) enzyme levels observed in this study of gutka by... Of its fake pleasure which is higher than the allowable standard of 0.01.!.01 ) bary main information aur side effects of smoking on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and the to. The pupils and it calls the anxiety Carcinogens ; global health ; ;..., of nicotine: Implications for nicotine, ( 2008 ) regarding effects! And 8.5 times daily for 15.1±2.7 and 12.3±3.4 years, respectively users are a. Makes better your health the release of, ( 2012 ) wear tear!